first_img“We live in interesting times,” grinned David Penny in Nature,1 reporting on how estimates of evolutionary past based on comparative genomics (the molecular clock) is producing confusing results.  Apparently, evolutionary geneticists are going to have to make use of the theory of relativity – i.e., that how fast the clock ticks depends on the viewpoint of the observer.  “An analysis of genetic data sets from primates and birds provides firm evidence that molecular evolution is faster on shorter than on longer timescales,” his subtitle explained.  “The estimated times of various evolutionary events require a rethink” (emphasis added in all quotes).  It’s hard to give up a pet theory, he continued:The relative constancy of the rate at which DNA sequences evolve has been a treasured icon of molecular evolution for nearly 40 years.  The occurrence of such a stochastic ‘molecular clock’ was initially quite unexpected, and was explained by Motoo Kimura by assuming that most changes to amino-acid and nucleotide sequences were neutral – “neither beneficial nor injurious”, in Charles Darwin’s prescient phrase.    However, there have been several inklings that the rate of molecular evolution accelerates when measured over evolutionarily short timescales.  As they report in Molecular Biology and Evolution, Ho and colleagues have now put the evidence together.  Their analyses of primate and bird data sets reveal that there is indeed a decided acceleration of molecular evolution on short timescales.  This is an effect that demands explanation; moreover, estimates for the timing of recent events in population biology will need to be reconsidered.Penny discussed whether the phenomenon is real, whether it can be explained, and why it was not picked up earlier.  Part of the reason is no one was looking:For some reason, the continuum between population heterozygosity and long-term evolution has not been adequately studied.  Although it is a continuum, the techniques required may change as the timescale decreases.  For example, some concepts from long-term evolution (binary evolutionary trees with sequences studied only at the tips) have been extended into populations where trees are no longer binary, and ancestral sequences (at internal nodes) are still present in the population.  There are hints that a formal multiscale study is necessary, because even though the same underlying process is occurring, different features of trees are observed as the timescale changes.Lastly, he asked what are the consequences of this revelation.  Many time estimates will require recalculation – that’s one practical aspect.  “In some cases the constraints are from recent events, and it is the long-term events that require re-analysis,” he explained; “Much more remains to be done.”  The assumption of a single mutation rate is gone; “Even for nucleotides there are many ‘mutation rates’,” he pointed out.  Penny feels the solution is tractable, but the implication is that many former assumptions have been invalidated by the new data – hence his last sentence, “we live in interesting times.”1David Penny, “Evolutionary biology: Relativity for molecular clocks,” Nature 436, 183-184 (14 July 2005) | doi: 10.1038/436183a.Another evolutionary assumption has been overturned by more careful analysis; keep up the good work.  Next time, though, remove the assumption of evolution before making the observations.  Relativity applies to physics, not biology.  An evolutionary tale that requires relativity to keep its plot together has left the science department for the theater class (see 11/29/2004 entry).(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

first_img Great productquick delivery,highly recommended. Arrived very quick i’m very pleased with this looked great. Reviews from purchasers :Like description, Natural hairAmazing quality! Looks very natural and easy to put Thank you again for such a great product! Really lovely and you can use for fine hair as not too heavy. Good quality hair/product delivered in reasonable time. I love it, it’s everything i expected it was going. I love it, it’s everything i expected it was going to be like. Here are the specifications for the BeautyPlus 100% Human Hair Ponytail Hair Extensions Dark Brown Colour 18 Inch 100g One Piece Wrap:Wrap Around 100% Remy Human Hair Ponytail Extensions Length 18″ 100 GramsCan Be Treated,Trimmed, Styled,Washed,Straightened, Curled Like Your Own HairA Perfect Fashion and Beautiful Accessory for Wedding, Parties and Fashion SalonTangle/Shedding Free Lasting up to 12 Months or Longer Depending on Wear, Care & StylingWell Crafted Thickness From Top to End, Made With Premium Quality Grade 7A Remy Human Hair SummaryReviewer Nathalie DuboisReview Date2018-02-04 02:03:28Reviewed Item 100% Human Hair Ponytail Hair Extensions Dark Brown Colour 18 Inch 100g One Piece Wrap for Beautiful Women (2#)Rating 5.0 / 5  stars, based on  15  reviewsPrice£38.99center_img Looks very natural and easy to put. Looks very natural and easy to put it in. Good quality hair/product delivered in reasonable time. Great productquick delivery,highly recommended. Thank you again for such a great product.  i ordered another one and it’s just like the one i ordered about a month ago. I ordered another one because i love it so much and was afraid they would discontinue them. It looks like my hair and no one can believe it isn’t my hair. My hair is to my shoulder blades and isn’t very thick. I had a bad layered haircut over a month ago that i’m having to deal with and this ponytail wrap has been a real life saver. I will continue to use even when my hair grows back the way i had it before to add thickness to my ponytails. Thank you again for such a great product. Arrived very quick i’m very pleased with this looked great. Like description, natural hair. 5 stars, like description, natural hair. Like description, natural hair. 5 stars, like description, natural hair. Really lovely and you can use for fine hair as not too heavy. Looks very natural and easy to put. Looks very natural and easy to put it in. I love it, it’s everything i expected it was going. I love it, it’s everything i expected it was going to be like. Thank you again for such a great product.  i ordered another one and it’s just like the one i ordered about a month ago. I ordered another one because i love it so much and was afraid they would discontinue them. It looks like my hair and no one can believe it isn’t my hair. My hair is to my shoulder blades and isn’t very thick. I had a bad layered haircut over a month ago that i’m having to deal with and this ponytail wrap has been a real life saver. I will continue to use even when my hair grows back the way i had it before to add thickness to my ponytails. Thank you again for such a great product. last_img read more

first_imgCloudnumbers.com, a cloud-based high-performance computing platform for complex computing, is now open for beta. Cloudnumbers.com will eventually support math and statistics environments like R and NumPy, specialized scientific software like AutoDock, and video rendering applications like Blender. For now it’s specifically looking for users to test its R environment.There are many options for people who need to rent HPC resources, but Cloudnumbers.com aims to provide an easy to use service tailored specifically for their needs. It’s not clear whether it has its own infrastructure or if it’s reselling from another provider.Although platform-as-a-service providers are springing up all over the place, especially since Salesforce.com acquired Heroku, we haven’t seen any specializing in R yet. Considering the increased popularity of R for data mining and analytics, it’s only a matter of time before Cloudnumbers.com faces some competition.Edward Borasky, who tipped us off about Cloudnumbers.com, maintains a couple SuSE appliances that include R and other data mining tools. Perhaps it’s time for a hosted service?Last week we covered RStudio, a cross-platform and open source IDE for R which happens to be available in the cloud. klint finley 7 Types of Video that will Make a Massive Impac… Tags:#Big Data#hack Why You Love Online Quizzescenter_img How to Write a Welcome Email to New Employees? Related Posts Growing Phone Scams: 5 Tips To Avoidlast_img read more

first_imgWhen to save old windowsOne of the most wonderful aspects of our local architecture is its historic windows with their characteristic divided lite panes and historic glass. They are not only visually appealing, but their design and craftsmanship make them worthy of preservation. Unfortunately, because they are single-glazed and often in disrepair, they are also one of the largest sources of heat loss in winter and a major source of heat gain in the summer. The windows alone can be responsible for 25 to 50 percent of the energy used to heat and cool homes!… There is a point when the condition of the window clearly indicates that a replacement is necessary. When considering replacement windows, it is important to not only consider their energy efficiency, but also their appearance in terms of the pattern of the proportions of their frame and sash, the configuration of the window panes, muntin profiles, types of wood and characteristics of the glass. Search for a replacement that retains as much of the character of the historic window as possible. Juli MacDonald is an architect and accredited LEED professional who worked in Chicago for 20 years before relocating to the East Coast and eventually opening her own firm in Amesbury, Massachusetts, in 2007.Later that year she started writing the GreenBridge blog. It’s named after her firm, which concentrates on residential additions and remodels.GreenBridge Blog is a mix of project descriptions, “sustainability and efficiency” entries, which covers such topics as insulation, home office planning and green roofs, and a shorter travelogue section that details places she’s visited or conferences she’s attended.There’s nothing stiff or pedantic about the entries. MacDonald writes just enough about herself and her family to provide personal context, but does not wander so far afield we wish she’s get back on topic.The project list isn’t huge, but there are some interesting entries, including one called the “Garbage Garage.” The handsome building looks conventional, until you get into the details and find out its lower walls are rammed-earth tires, and that light in the upper gable ends comes from glass bottles laid up like cordwood and mortared in place. A visiting team from Guatemala called Long Way Home took part in the project.Another is Lamorna Cottage after a 1880s farmhouse that MacDonald and her family seem to have bought this past summer in Rockland, Maine. We’ll be traveling along as they bring the house back into livable shape.There also are links to companies that might be of interest to anyone building in New England, including Andros Energy (renewable energy systems), the Green Cocoon (insulation), and JF Jewett Farms & Co. (cabinetmakers).Here are a few excerpts: Why we should talk about toiletsWhen I first started working as an architectural intern in Rockford, Illinois, Larry, the curmudgeonly head draftsman, loved teasing me about my main job of drawing toilet rooms. He didn’t let me say ‘bathroom,’ insisting that I say ‘toilet.’ He was right – we were working on commercial toilet rooms and nobody was taking baths there… Well, it’s been a lot of years, and now I’ve got a lot to say about toilets – Do you want your toilet in a separate room? Do you like an elongated bowl for comfort? What do you think of the water-saving dual-flush models? Do you have young sons?Discussing the toilet still isn’t my favorite part of the bath design process, but it’s important, because habits and details make all the difference in a successful bathroom. I resolveOn December 12th [2009], my family lost my Grandmother, Eleanor Phillips, who lived in Fort Dodge, Iowa. I was lucky enough to be able to spend some precious time with her during her last days in the hospital. During part of that time, my cousins and I pored over Grandma’s various journals, letters and photos, and we got a wonderful sense of the fullness of her life and the way she lived and adapted throughout her 88 years.In one letter to her sister written in the 50s, she talked about ripping down discarded clothing to make braided rugs. Her journals and autobiographies described her huge love of gardening and enjoyment of the harvests. She was a farmer’s daughter, one of 6 children who knew what sharing and making-do meant, and who also knew to not leave the table without asking one sibling or parent to guard her plate. Her fondest memories of her mother included her ability to whip up the most amazing donuts for the family and to make a dress for my grandmother the night before she wore it to a dance.It was clear that she had a happy childhood – she carried a 80-year-old snapshot of a family Sunday picnic in her wallet, and in her writing she often described her many memories of her parents hugging and kissing, and her father’s desolation when her mother died at a very young age. She remembered her and her siblings’ excitement at seeing their single gift and one orange next to their plates Christmas morning.So, my resolution? To continue to carry my grandma and her lessons with me. Embrace simple and good living, enjoy family and seek happiness in the smallest things. She didn’t live her life with the intent of being ‘green’ or ‘sustainable,’ but her way of life was what so many of us strive for today. Reuse and salvageOne of my fondest memories of living in Chicago was ‘shopping’ in the alleys. My quickest walk to the train was down our 3 block alley: on one side were condo buildings and the on the other were single-family homes. It worked this way – if you didn’t want something anymore, you left it in the alley, NEXT to the garbage, sometimes with a note, and it was usually gone in a few hours. Through the years I collected a great variety of treasures. Among them: lamps, a desk, many, many chairs, my now favorite cookbook. My goal wasn’t to be green, but it really was an efficient (cheap!) and practical system.Now I use Freecycle. If you haven’t checked them out, give them a try – it is basically a local list-serve where members post items they want to give away or items they’d like to receive. It works similarly to shopping in the Chicago alley, but is a bit more civilized.In construction, the act of restoring or remodeling a home is a form of reuse and salvage. Preservation instead of demolition and new construction saves in energy and materials consumption and reduces demolition landfill. There is a great opportunity in salvaging and reusing materials for remodeling and even new construction projects, if you are aware and know where to look.last_img read more

first_imgMatt Asay Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Tags:#Forrester#HTML5#Jeffrey Hammond#mobile#Open Source What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfacescenter_img The enterprise has always been buttoned-down, conservative. And that’s a good thing. Let the wacky Web crowd dabble in new-school technologies. Eventually they’ll be back, begging for a white paper or two to explain best practices of green screens and mainframes. Right?Not even close. As Forrester analysts Jeffrey Hammond and Julie Ask highlight in a new report, “The Future Of Mobile Application Development,” enterprises must embrace mobile to succeed, with mobile development requiring modern development techniques and technologies like elastic infrastructure, open source and DevOps.  With over one billion smartphones globally, a number that keeps booming, they argue “We’re entering a new age of application development that creates modern, compelling systems of engagement and links them with systems of record and systems of operation.”The problem is keeping pace:“As companies target more devices and platforms when building modern applications, client-side development costs will increase. At the same time, they will need to deploy releases faster than ever. The only way to survive this Catch-22 is to lower the cost of testing new ideas and make it quicker and cheaper to separate the good ideas from the bad.”Looking For SolutionsHammond and Ask aren’t alone in pointing to this enterprise quandary, even within Forrester. Indeed, the need for flexible development is top of mind across the analyst firm, with analyst Mike Gualtieri arguing that “Traditional application development platforms such as Java and .NET are not necessarily the fastest approaches to develop applications. CIOs should investigate application development productivity platforms that make application development professionals more productive.” And faster.Like what?In listing out elements of a successful mobile development strategy, Hammond and Ask point to a few essential technologies or technology approaches:RESTful APIs that are asynchronous and can be consumed across multiple channels;In-memory databases;Open-source software…everywhere (lowers barriers to try new approaches);Shared SQL databases and NoSQL databases (commodity hardware; scale-out architecture);Dynamic languages (e.g., PHP, Django) in concert with static languages like Java and .NET;Lightweight process communication frameworks like node.js and nginx (reduces resource consumption, among other things).Each of the above elements contributes to a much more iterative, agile approach to development. I’d probably also add HTML5, as building native-only applications makes it harder to iterate an application and adds significantly more cost (up to 30%, according to Forrester’s analysis). For enterprises who think these things nudge them toward acting more like their Web peers, the answer is “Yes.” Just as the Web has gifted innovation like Hadoop to the enterprise so, too, is it paving the way for enhanced mobile development.Here Comes The FutureIt’s almost trite to say it, but mobile is the future of computing, whether for the consumer or in the enterprise. As such, enterprises need to emulate the best of modern consumer Web approaches. The alternative, according to Forrester, is not pleasant: “Ignore these structural and business model changes and you risk creating a new generation of stovepiped mobile apps that are hard to maintain and ill-equipped for the changes that are just over the horizon.”Enterprise CIOs needn’t panic, though. They have time.  As Forrester points out, the attributes of successful mobile development they cite are being used by leading mobile app developers, but not perfectly, and still not widely. Mainstream mobile app developers are only just now learning to embrace more of these elements of success, and the enterprise is even slower. Based on Indeed.com’s top-10 job trends, however, the enterprise is clearly waking up to these needs, hiring droves of developers with HTML5 and other related mobile experience. In sum, they have time, but they need to get moving on emulating Web companies. Now.Image courtesy of Shutterstock. Related Posts The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technologylast_img read more

first_imgRelated Posts Guide to Performing Bulk Email Verification The social curation and real-time conversion platform Livefyre has acquired Storify, a drag-and-drop storytelling tool used by journalists, marketers and brands. Livefyre will integrate Storify into its StreamHub platform, which lets users integrate real-time social content into their websites, mobile applications, ads and television broadcasts, creating a massive social curation platform. The acquisition will merge Storify’s multiple paid tiers into a single enterprise offering and add new features including centralized story and editor management; single sign-on and engagement analytics. The terms of the acquisition were not disclosed.  Facebook is Becoming Less Personal and More Pro… The Dos and Don’ts of Brand Awareness Videoscenter_img readwrite Tags:#acquisition#Livefyre#now#Storify A Comprehensive Guide to a Content Auditlast_img read more